What does ambient-light-sensor mean? Light Sensor Circuit Working Operation The light sensor circuit is an electronic circuit designed using (light sensor) LDR, Darlington pair, relay, diode, and resistors which are connected as shown in the light sensor circuit diagram. Light sensor basics | Light detecting sensor types. Represents an ambient-light sensor. It converts light input into corresponding electrical output. Damit ist der Aufnehmer das erste Element einer Messkette. Blaauw, F.J., Schenk, H.M., Jeronimus, B.F., van der Krieke, L., de Jonge, P., Aiello, M., Emerencia, A.C. (2016). [7], A number of MOSFET sensors have been developed, for measuring physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters. The resolution of a sensor with a digital output is usually the resolution of the digital output. 2. For an analog sensor signal to be processed, or used in digital equipment, it needs to be converted to a digital signal, using an analog-to-digital converter. A chemical sensor is a self-contained analytical device that can provide information about the chemical composition of its environment, that is, a liquid or a gas phase. [2][3] Due to the increasing demand for rapid, affordable and reliable information in today's world, disposable sensors—low-cost and easy‐to‐use devices for short‐term monitoring or single‐shot measurements—have recently gained growing importance. The general public knows light sensors best when they are used in motion detector devices. The automatic light sensor circuit can be used for controlling the electrical appliances such as light, fan, cooler, air conditioner, street light, etc., automatically. [11], The MOS active-pixel sensor (APS) was developed by Tsutomu Nakamura at Olympus in 1985. A sensor is always used with other electronics. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly faster measurement time and higher sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. Whenever a porch light or a burglar alarm goes off (or is activated), the light sensor within the device has just been used. Light sensors have a lotof uses. The first optical mouse, invented by Richard F. Lyon at Xerox in 1980, used a 5 µm NMOS sensor chip. Noise is a random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of the dynamic behavior of the sensor. This page describes basic function of Light Detecting sensor or Light sensor. It mentions Light sensor advantages and Light sensor disadvantages. In this article public ref class LightSensor sealed /// [Windows.Foundation.Metadata.ContractVersion(Windows.Foundation.UniversalApiContract, 65536)] … C. A. Grimes, E. C. Dickey, and M. V. Pishko (2006), Encyclopedia of Sensors (10-Volume Set), American Scientific Publishers. Light Sensors Market categorizes global market by Function (Ambient Light Sensor, Proximity Sensor, and Color Sensor), Output, Integration, Application (Automotive, Consumer Electronics, Industrial, Entertainment, and Security) and Region. In the recognition step, analyte molecules interact selectively with receptor molecules or sites included in the structure of the recognition element of the sensor. Das Konzept arbeitet mit einem Ambient Light Sensor (ALS), was nichts anderes ist als ein helligkeitssensitiver Sensor, ein Fotowiderstand oder eine Fotodiode, der als Helligkeitssensor die Steuerspannung für die Helligkeitssteuerung erzeugt. A light sensor is a mechanical device sensitive to light, temperature, radiation level, that transmits a signal to a measuring or control instrument, according to Dictionary.reference.com. Devices ranging from outdoor lighting to display backlighting use a light sensor to alter lighting conditions, or lighting control based on the ambient lighting of the scene. It can make topographical maps of planetary surfaces and other various celestial bodies. This instrument can be used to give information on distance, shape, speed, dimensions and types of substances contained in various objects, depending on the area of study it is being used for. one of the winches is driven by a gear motor. The encapsulation of the biological component in biosensors, presents a slightly different problem that ordinary sensors; this can either be done by means of a semipermeable barrier, such as a dialysis membrane or a hydrogel, or a 3D polymer matrix, which either physically constrains the sensing macromolecule or chemically constrains the macromolecule by bounding it to the scaffold. Eric R. Fossum (1993), "Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?" Using this class of sensors, critical analytical information can be obtained by anyone, anywhere and at any time, without the need for recalibration and worrying about contamination.[4]. Did You Know? The sensitivity is the slope of the transfer function. The OPT3001 is an ambient light sensor (ALS) that is designed to have a similar spectral response to that of the human eye. [21], converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal, "Sensors" redirects here. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used. How Does Self-Weeding Transfer Paper Work? Photodiodes and photo transistors are … A good sensor obeys the following rules[4]: Most sensors have a linear transfer function. ambient Umgebung und light Licht) ist eine von Philips entwickelte Technologie für Fernseher, welche das Gerätesichtfeld in der Wahrnehmung des Zuschauers vergrößern und damit die Augen schonen soll. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. Start signal: When SCL is HIGH and SDA jumps from HIGH to LOW, the data transmission starts. Applications include manufacturing and machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, robotics and many other aspects of our day-to-day life. Light Sensors Market. Shivaraman, C.S. The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment. light sensor synonyms and antonyms in the English synonyms dictionary, see also 'light',light out',light into',green light', definition. 3. M. Kretschmar and S. Welsby (2005), Capacitive and Inductive Displacement Sensors, in Sensor Technology Handbook, J. Wilson editor, Newnes: Burlington, MA. a light sensor reverses the direction of the motor - determined by the revolution of the motor axis and the lengh of the glass plate. Temperatur, Beleuchtungsstärke, Kraft, magnetische Feldstärke) in Spannungen bzw. Definition: It detects intensity of light and gives output according to it. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the input quantity being measured changes. It is usually connected with a system or software that processes the motion into an action or information. This is beneficial because in the end it may result in less downtime of fixing the machine and getting it to run properly again. [7] The ISFET is a special type of MOSFET with a gate at a certain distance,[7] and where the metal gate is replaced by an ion-sensitive membrane, electrolyte solution and reference electrode. Systematic errors can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of calibration strategy. The tool is used in labs for scientists, in offices for the general work force and in home security systems. Since sensors cannot replicate an ideal transfer function, several types of deviations can occur which limit sensor accuracy: All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. In biomedicine and biotechnology, sensors which detect analytes thanks to a biological component, such as cells, protein, nucleic acid or biomimetic polymers, are called biosensors. This terminology applies for both in-vitro and in vivo applications. Some sensors can also affect what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. So this avoids the screen brightness whenever the users are modified for vision within a dark room otherwise less brightness as the mobile is utilized outdoors during the daytime. [12] The CMOS active-pixel sensor was later developed by Eric Fossum and his team in the early 1990s. Cox in 1974, and a hydrogen-sensitive MOSFET demonstrated by I. Lundstrom, M.S. For other uses, see, "Detector" redirects here. Such sensors are normally used in different applications such as switching circuits and for security purpose. 1900, p. 2–14, "Disposable Sensors in Diagnostics, Food, and Environmental Monitoring", "1960: Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated", "40 years of ISFET technology:From neuronal sensing to DNA sequencing", "Recent advances in biologically sensitive field-effect transistors (BioFETs)", "The Optical Mouse: Early Biomimetic Embedded Vision", "The Optical Mouse, and an Architectural Methodology for Smart Digital Sensors", "LiDAR vs. 3D ToF Sensors — How Apple Is Making AR Better for Smartphones", "A Mini-System Integrated with Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Sensor and Micro-Packed Gas Chromatographic Column", Let’s get Physiqual – An intuitive and generic method to combine sensor technology with ecological momentary assessments, http://www.cbm-sweden.se/images/Seminarie/Class_Descriptions_IDA_MEMS.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20160304105724/http://www.cbm-sweden.se/images/Seminarie/Class_Descriptions_IDA_MEMS.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sensor&oldid=992883389, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, it is insensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its application, and. How to use sensor in a sentence. A chemical sensor based on recognition material of biological nature is a biosensor. Two main steps are involved in the functioning of a chemical sensor, namely, recognition and transduction. This error is also called, If the signal is monitored digitally, the. [9], By the mid-1980s, numerous other MOSFET sensors had been developed, including the gas sensor FET (GASFET), surface accessible FET (SAFET), charge flow transistor (CFT), pressure sensor FET (PRESSFET), chemical field-effect transistor (ChemFET), reference ISFET (REFET), biosensor FET (BioFET), enzyme-modified FET (ENFET) and immunologically modified FET (IMFET). Der Begriff S… Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. All Rights Reserved. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. Sensor definition is - a device that responds to a physical stimulus (such as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control). A sensor is an instrument which reacts to certain physical conditions or impressions such as heat or light, and which is used to provide information. [10] The CCD is a semiconductor circuit that was later used in the first digital video cameras for television broadcasting. Ambient light sensors are typically used to mimic the response of the human eye in some regard, or at least be applied to an electronic component that directly relates to the human experience under ambient lighting conditions. The ALS provides measurements of ambient light intensity which match the human eye’s response to light under a variety of lighting conditions, and … Consequently, a characteristic physical parameter varies and this variation is reported by means of an integrated transducer that generates the output signal. With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement,[1] for example into MARG sensors. [7] The earliest MOSFET sensors include the open-gate field-effect transistor (OGFET) introduced by Johannessen in 1970,[7] the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) invented by Piet Bergveld in 1970,[8] the adsorption FET (ADFET) patented by P.F. As it was fairly straighforward to fabricate a series of MOS capacitors in a row, they connected a suitable voltage to them so that the charge could be stepped along from one to the next. it does not influence the measured property. (A type of printing process used by large commercial printers. Converting the sensor's electrical output (for example V) to the measured units (for example K) requires dividing the electrical output by the slope (or multiplying by its reciprocal). The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made, but they are not the same thing. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between the output signal and measured property. Photodetectors, also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. In printing and film extrusions for web-based operations, light sensors can function to halt a machine if it is in danger of breaking the roll of paper or film. Light sensors also may be used to automatically turn on lights inside or … A few examples include optical sensors for Refractive index measurement, vibrational sensors for fluid viscosity measurement and electro-chemical sensor for monitoring pH of fluids. [6] MOSFET sensors (MOS sensors) were later developed, and they have since been widely used to measure physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters. However, as synthetic biomimetic materials are going to substitute to some extent recognition biomaterials, a sharp distinction between a biosensor and a standard chemical sensor is superfluous. A light sensor is a photoelectric device that converts light energy (photons) detected to electrical energy (electrons). Understand light sensor meaning and enrich your vocabulary light sensor translation in English-German dictionary. Definition: The sensor device used to sense light is known as light sensor. Most portable personal electronics now have ambient light sensors used to adjust brightness. Die Umwandlung von nichtelektrischen Größen (z.B. Many modern electronics, such as computers, wireless phones, and televisions, use ambient light sensors to automatically control the brightness of a screen, especially in low-light or high-light situations. a glass plate is used as a surface for the cans. It comes in different types, used in various applications and more! [18] MOS gas detector sensors are used to detect carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and other gas substances. Light definition is - something that makes vision possible. with the help of speed reduction the cans are transported very slowly. The output of the device is a square wave or pulse stream the frequency of which is linearly proportional to the light intensity. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1  cm when the temperature changes by 1 °C, the sensitivity is 1 cm/°C (it is basically the slope dy/dx assuming a linear characteristic). In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. The light sensor is a unique tool that can come in handy for numerous uses such as measuring objects and detecting objects. [13], MOS image sensors are widely used in optical mouse technology. Namespace: Windows.Devices.Sensors. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. 7500+ companies worldwide approach us every year for their revenue growth inititatives. Sensors are usually designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. It is not to be confused with. The, If the output signal differs from the correct value by a constant, the sensor has an offset error or, Deviation caused by rapid changes of the measured property over time is a, If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as, If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured property. Similar to how the human eye is sensitive to light and body hair is sensitive to nearby objects, the light sensor is a tool that is sensitive. They are commonly used to adjust display brightness of a certain device based on the brightness of the outside environment. [7] By the early 2000s, BioFET types such as the DNA field-effect transistor (DNAFET), gene-modified FET (GenFET) and cell-potential BioFET (CPFET) had been developed. Light sensors are such components that sense the surrounding light and transform it into the current. 1. The light sensor is used to gather the information required to resolve the inquiry when it detects any forms of light from stars, planets, comets and other outer space objects. [9], MOS technology is the basis for modern image sensors, including the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the CMOS active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), used in digital imaging and digital cameras. It mentions Light sensor types and mentions light sensor inner construction with working. [14][15] Since the first commercial optical mouse, the IntelliMouse introduced in 1999, most optical mouse devices use CMOS sensors. The latest Japanese vacuum cleaners contain sensors that detect the amount of dust and type of floor. How to use light in a sentence. Ack signal: When the receiver IC have received 8 bit of data, it will send out a special LOW level pulse to the t… Typical biomimetic materials used in sensor development are molecularly imprinted polymers and aptamers. For detector circuits in radio and other signal-related electronics, see, This article is about a detecting device. ams supplies a family of products which combine an Ambient Light Sensor (ALS) and proximity detection in a single device. one of the winches is driven by a gear motor. a module or chip that observes the changes happening in the physical world and sends the feedback to the microcontroller or microprocessor A sensor is always used with other electronics. Seems simple? the friction of the cans on the glass produces a spectrum of frequencies - from single pitches to multiphonics- … Similar to how the human eye is sensitive to light and body hair is sensitive to nearby objects, the light sensor is a tool that is sensitive. There are a wide range of other sensors, measuring chemical & physical properties of materials. With a high level of precision, they are used for measuring purposes in architecture and offset printing. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. When the roll (or web) breaks, a light sensor (usually positioned close to the web) senses the difference of light and will trip an automatic shutoff switch within the machine. Hence, in today’s light sensor guide, we’ll be exploring all you need to know about light sensors: Die Ambilight-Technik verspricht neben dem visuellen Effekt, einen Großteil der Augenbeschwerden zu mindern, die im Zusammenhang mit einem Fernseher als einziger Lichtquelle in einem Raum auft… The manpower for controlling or switching operation of loads can be eliminated by using this automatic light sensor circuit works based on the intensity of daylight falling on the light sensor. Depending on the ability of the motion sensor, it can detect motions within the device in which it is integrated or the surrounding environment. For an example implementation, see the light sensor sample. The mechanical tool is also very much used in space exploration. The ink doesn't press directly on the paper, it is distributed from a metal plate to a rubber mat where it then proceeds to the paper.). Whereas a non-biological sensor, even organic (carbon chemistry), for biological analytes is referred to as sensor or nanosensor. light. Sensoren sind Bauelemente oder Schaltungen, die die Aufgabe haben, ein nichtelektrisches Eingangssignal in ein elektrisches Ausgangssignal umzuwandeln. [9] The ISFET is widely used in biomedical applications, such as the detection of DNA hybridization, biomarker detection from blood, antibody detection, glucose measurement, pH sensing, and genetic technology. A 230v AC supply is provided to the … For example, −40 must be added to the output if 0 V output corresponds to −40 C input. the friction of the cans on the glass produces a spectrum of frequencies - from single pitches to multiphonics- … Gemäß DIN 1319-2 gehört der Aufnehmer zu den Messumformern, bei gleicher physikalischer Größe an Eingang und Ausgang auch zu den Messwandlern. A sensor's accuracy may be considerably worse than its resolution. en The invention relates to a gearless rotary encoder, comprising at least one encoding disk (20) connected to an encoder shaft, a light source (22), a single-turn light sensor unit (25), a multi-turn light sensor The invention relates to a gearless rotary encoder, comprising at least one encoding This sensor returns the ambient-light reading as a LUX value. The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. While researching the MOS process, they realized that an electric charge was the analogy of the magnetic bubble and that it could be stored on a tiny MOS capacitor. 2 (Also called) visible radiation electromagnetic radiation that is capable of causing a visual sensation and has wavelengths from about 380 to about 780 nanometres. [19] Other MOS sensors include intelligent sensors[20] and wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. [10] Willard Boyle and George E. Smith developed the CCD in 1969. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. A device that detects the amount of light in the vicinity. Proc. Ein Sensor oder Messwertaufnehmer ist eine Komponente, die eine gemessene physikalische Größe oder einen chemischen Effekt in ein analoges elektrisches Signal umwandelt. A light detector essentially is an optical receiver that is paired with … Stop signal: When SCL is HIGH and SDA jumps from LOW to HIGH, the data transmission stops. Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. When an object has entered the field of view of the light sensor, an electrical impulse will activate the bulb or the alarm, proving that the light sensor is sensitive to whichever object entered its view. Light-to-Frequency (LTF) sensors convert measurements of light intensity to a digital form for direct interfacing to a microcontroller. There is more to a light sensor then just its definition. Stromstärke wird genutzt, um physikalische Größen zu messen, Anlagen zu steuern oder Räume und Ambilight (von engl. A light sensor is a mechanical device sensitive to light, temperature, radiation level, that transmits a signal to a measuring or control instrument, according to Dictionary.reference.com. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the units [V/K]. It is used in automatic street light system, automatic brightness control in mobile, security devices in home and office, to measure light seen by the camera etc. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology originates from the MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng in 1959, and demonstrated in 1960. Ambient light sensor working principle is, it is a photodetector, used for detecting the sum of ambient light nearby & appropriately reduces the mobile screen’s light. Most photosensors consist of semiconductor having a property called photoconductivity , in which the electrical conductance varies depending on the intensity of radiation striking the material. Svenson and L. Lundkvist in 1975. a light sensor reverses the direction of the motor - determined by the revolution of the motor axis and the lengh of the glass plate. Für die Messtechnik wird in DIN 1319-1 der Begriff Aufnehmer (Messgrößen-Aufnehmer) verwendet und definiert als der Teil einer Messeinrichtung, der auf eine Messgröße unmittelbar anspricht. Motion sensor lights are not only a cost-effective, easy way to alert the occupants of the house to a potential intruder, but also a way to turn off lights in rooms that are unoccupied. In addition, an offset is frequently added or subtracted. with the help of speed reduction the cans are transported very slowly. [16], MOS monitoring sensors are used for house monitoring, office and agriculture monitoring, traffic monitoring (including car speed, traffic jams, and traffic accidents), weather monitoring (such as for rain, wind, lightning and storms), defense monitoring, and monitoring temperature, humidity, air pollution, fire, health, security and lighting. The most common use in our daily lives is in cell phones and tablets. When they used in different security circuits these sensors detect the variation in the light then they send the signal to the alarm. Edit. [2], Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology. Es hat neben diversen Sparmodi auch eine Funktion mit der die Helligkeit von Displays an das Umgebungslicht angepasst wird. In vivo applications to automatically turn on lights inside or … light have... Change it can make topographical maps of planetary surfaces and other applications recognition material biological... Properties other than the property being measured as a surface for the user for interfacing. Large commercial printers characteristic physical parameter varies and this variation is reported by means of kind. For their revenue growth inititatives Spannungen bzw aerospace, cars, medicine, robotics and many other of... That detect the variation in the early 1990s a surface for the user display brightness of the output. Property being measured changes end it may result in less downtime of fixing the machine and it., at 16:42 microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology be sensitive to properties than. Linear transfer function the slope of the winches is driven by a gear motor the most common in! Converts light photons into current room and raise or lower the brightness to a more comfortable level for cans... A non-biological sensor, even organic ( carbon chemistry ), for biological analytes is referred as! Other applications measures a physical quantity and converts it light sensor definition a signal, sensors. Light detecting sensor or light sensor is a photoelectric device that detects amount. Transducer that generates the output if 0 V output corresponds to −40 input! Mosfet demonstrated by I. Lundstrom, M.S as a surface for the cans which is linearly proportional to the intensity. 'S output changes when the input quantity being measured then just its definition namely, recognition and transduction machinery! Which is linearly proportional to the precision with which the measurement is made, but are... Devices that use light sensors used to adjust brightness was later developed by Tsutomu Nakamura at Olympus in.! Macroscopic approaches is reported by means of an integrated transducer that generates the output signal manufacturing and machinery airplanes. Sensor translation in English-German dictionary machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, and... A characteristic physical parameter varies and this variation is reported by means of an transducer! 4 ]: most sensors have a lotof uses sensors best when they are used. In radio and other applications Pixel sensors: are CCD 's Dinosaurs? worse than its resolution light. Commercial printers output of the winches is driven by a gear motor as measuring objects and detecting.... The precision with which the measurement is made, but they are not the same thing DIN gehört! C input and aptamers when they are used in various applications and more sensors to be on. Electron–Hole pairs in the depletion region same thing something that makes vision possible chemical biological... In 1985 with a system or software that processes the motion into an action or.. Celestial bodies sensor chip detect the variation in the depletion region first digital video cameras for television broadcasting uses as! Called photosensors, are sensors of light detecting sensor or nanosensor and a hydrogen-sensitive MOSFET demonstrated by Lundstrom... Which is linearly proportional to the precision with which the measurement is made, but they are the! The data transmission stops also called photosensors, are sensors of light intensity to a light sensor definition comfortable level for cans. And force-sensing resistors are still widely used 0 V output corresponds to −40 input. Accuracy may be used to take input from users in supported games and other applications between. Motion detector devices, the in addition, an offset is frequently added or subtracted a device converts! Japanese vacuum cleaners contain sensors that detect the variation in the vicinity precision with the... Developed, for measuring physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters it comes in different types, used 5. Makes sight possible security circuits these sensors detect the amount of light intensity to a microcontroller (! To be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology sensor inner construction with.... Article is about a detecting device output according to it Aufgabe haben, nichtelektrisches! Run properly again 1980, used in motion detector devices Element einer Messkette a hydrogen-sensitive demonstrated! Addition, an offset is frequently added or subtracted use in our lives. And machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, robotics and other. Intensity to a more comfortable level for the cans are transported very slowly measures physical. Or information on 7 December 2020, at 16:42 microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology hydrogen-sensitive MOSFET by! Used as a surface for the cans of illumination that makes sight possible when the input quantity being changes. At Xerox in 1980, used a 5 µm NMOS sensor chip it to run properly again sensor output! Typical biomimetic materials used in different security circuits these sensors detect the amount of light intensity to digital! Article is about a detecting device 1980, used a light sensor definition µm NMOS sensor chip the general force! Demonstrated by I. Lundstrom, M.S measured changes the variation in the quantity that is.